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Cox Web Hosting Glossary

Last Updated: Thu, 16 Jun 2016 > Related Articles


A glossary of commonly used Web Hosting terms, for Cox Business customers.


Applies To

  • Cox Web Hosting
  • glossary of terms
  • websites

Jump To

A - B | C - D | E - F | G - H | I - J | K - L | M - N | O - P | Q - R | S - T | U - V | W - X | Y - Z

A -B
A statistical tool that generates advanced web, streaming, ftp or mail server statistics graphically.

For more information, please visit http://awstats.sourceforge.net.
See Bulletin Board System.
Berkeley Internet Name Domain is an implementation of the Domain Name System protocols, including:

  • A Domain Name System server (NameID).
  • A Domain Name System resolver library, tools for verifying the proper operation of the DNS server.
  • The B.I.N.D. D.N.S. Server is used on the vast majority of name serving machines on the Internet, providing a robust and stable architecture on top of which an organization's naming architecture can be built.

This is the smallest measure of computerized data, either 1 or 0. Eight bits equal one byte, or one character.
Bits per second
BPS. A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 28.8K modem can move 28,800 bits per second, or about 3600 characters per second.
See Bits per second.
A client program used to view various kinds of Internet resources. You use a browser (e.g., Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer) to view Web pages from your computer.
Berkeley Software Distribution, a free version of UNIX.
An error in coding or logic that causes a program to malfunction or to produce incorrect results. Also, a recurring physical problem that prevents a system or set of components from working together properly.
Bulletin Board System
BBS. A computerized meeting system. BBS users can have discussions, make announcements, and upload or download files. There are thousands of BBSs around the world; many of them rely on a direct modem-to-modem connection over a phone line, using a single computer.
A set of 8 bits that represent a single character.

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C - D


A local storage of recently accessed web files from a Web server. To modify your cache settings in Internet Explorer browser, from the menu bar, select View / Tools - Internet Options – General - Temporary Internet Files. To modify your cache settings in Netscape Navigator, from the Edit menu choose Preferences – Advanced - Cache.

Certificate Authority
An issuer of Security Certificates used in SSL connections. Two prime examples are verisign (www.verisign.com)and thawte (www.thawte.com)

See Common Gateway Interface.

UNIX command for changing permissions. Each file is assigned permissions based upon the ownership, the group membership, and the accessibility of the file to non-authenticated users.

Permissions are assigned in a combination of three variants:

Read permission (assigned a numeric value of 4) allows a user to view the contents of a file or a directory.
Write permission (assigned a numeric value of 2) allows a user to view and make changes to a file.
Execute permission (assigned a numeric value of 1) allows a user to run the program contained in a file.
Only the owner of the file or directory can change permissions. UNIX clients can modify permissions through an F.T.P. client, such as CuteFTP or WSFTP.

A program (or software) used to interact with a server. A Web browser is a specific kind of client.

Cold Fusion
Available on the NT platform, Allaire’s Cold Fusion is a dynamic scripting language that allows for the submission and retrieval of data to and from a database. Cold Fusion files are indicated by the file extension “CFM”. For more information, please visit http://www.allaire.com.

Common Gateway Interface
CGI. A protocol that allows a Web page to run a program on a Web server. Forms, counters, and guest books are common examples of CGI programs. CGI scripts define how the Web server and programs send information back and forth. These scripts allow visitors to interact with the site and give the Webmaster valuable information about a Web page. CGI scripts are indicated by a file extension “cgi”.

A piece of information sent to a browser by a Web server upon accessing a Web site. The next time the browser accesses that site, the server retrieves the information. This is how some Web pages "remember" your previous visits; for example, an E-Commerce site might use a cookie to remember which items you’ve placed in your online shopping cart. Cookies can also store user preference information, log-in data, etc.

This Unix term refers to a specific type of program or agent designed to work in the background. Using a daemon, a program can simply hand off data to the smaller program and go on to more important things. For example, a print daemon could handle print requests from multiple users and applications, freeing them for other tasks.

Data Source Name
Data Source Name stores information about how to connect to the indicated data provider, for example, a database. A data source name entry links a database with database drivers, software that has knowledge of how to communicate with your type of database. Customers may also create a DSNless connection to remove the requirement for server side intervention.

Data Transfer
In general, any outward-bound traffic from a Web site is considered to be data transfer. Each time a Web page, image, MIDI file, etc. is loaded, data transfer is generated.

Data Transfer-Bandwidth
Refers to the amount of electronic data sent over the network each month in response to visitor's requests. This varies depending on the size of your Web pages and the number of visitors to your site. A 50-kilobyte home page that's viewed by 20,000 visitors each month will use one gigabyte of data transfer per month (50,000 bytes x 20,000 hits = 1 billion bytes, or one gigabyte). Bandwidth is metered by the byte. It's best to estimate your expected bandwidth and keep track of events and site promotions that could result in sudden increases in visitor traffic.

A collection of data: part numbers, product codes, customer information, etc. It usually refers to data organized and stored on a computer that can be searched and retrieved by a computer program.

Dedicated Web Hosting
The rental or lease of a server and the network bandwidth to the Internet for access to the server. Offers one customer per server.

If you're building a more complex corporate or E-Commerce site, you'll need more space - a Web server dedicated to your business, the equivalent of an entire office building. The host is still responsible for site security, maintenance, and technical support, and you aren't saddled with the prohibitive costs of setting up your own server and Internet connection.

An industry-standard protocol that dynamically assigns Internet Protocol (I.P.) configurations to computers.

Dial-Up Internet Access
Connects the user via an analog or ISDN line. The user must dial in to a modem each time the Internet is accessed.

Digital Special Access Circuits (DS3/OC3)
Fiber DS3/OC3 High Capacity Circuits between DSLAM and ATM backbone network, considered our infra-structure.

Digital Subscriber Line
DSL. Technology which combines Voice and Data on same wire pair. Various types include (but are not limited to):

Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is one type of DSL technology that is a capable of greater speed in one direction than another.
High data rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) is capable of 1.544Mbps speed in both directions.

Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer
DSLAM. Central office group of devices consisting of DSL modem banks, multilplexers, and routers. The DSLAM consolidates or concentrates all the data traffic coming in from individual DSL lines and passes them on to a backbone network for distribution to Internet service provider networks or corporate networks.

Disk Capacity (Space)
The amount of space on the host server that is used for a customer’s Web site.

Example: A disk capacity of 40MB is equivalent to 1200 Web site (8 ½ x 11) pages of text only assuming that an average page size is 30 kb. However, when graphics or photos are added, disk capacity will be reduced depending on the size of graphics or photos added.

ADSL service cannot be provided to a location because other digital services, within the same cable sheath, will cause excessive interference upon an ADSL service. This interference may hinder ADSL from working at all, or cause the service to work below acceptable service parameters. ADSLs tolerance of interference from other services is relative to the length of the physical loop.

See Domain Name System.

Domain Alias (Nicknames)
An alternative domain name that points to an existing site. You can have several domain aliases that point to one original domain or Web site. They are like nicknames; they allow surfers to access pages without having to know the exact domain name. For example, www.uca.com directs you to www.varsity.com. These two companies are interrelated so both sites go to the same IP address. Customers want it because it increases the likelihood their page will be used if they can use multiple names to get to the same place.

Domain E-mail
Electronic mail that is personalized to a customer’s Web site. For example, domain E-mail is: Yourname@yourcompany.com

Domain Name
Your address on the Internet. It is linked to a numerical address, called an IP address (e.g. A domain name server is used to translate a domain name into an IP address. Domain names consist of two parts: the actual name, and the hierarchy to which it belongs. The hierarchies available for public use are .com, .net, and .org.

A domain name specifies a site, or a particular computer at a site. It can have several parts. In the US, the last part indicates the type of domain:

.com – commercial
.edu – educational
.org – organization
.net – network
.gov – government
.mil – military
A domain name locates an organization or other entity on the Internet. Domain names are used in URLs to identify particular Web pages. Example, the domain name for IBM is www.ibm.com

A unique name that identifies one or more Web sites. A domain name acts as a permanent Web address and provides a professional, prestigious Web presence. Compare these two Web addresses (URLs)

In the first URL, the domain name "anywebhost.com" is owned by someone else. If you moved your business Web site to another Web host, you'd need a new URL--and you'd have to notify your customers of your new address. The second URL contains an example of a custom domain name that you own: "yourname.com." If you ever move your site, your address will stay the same

Domain Name System
DNS. A database that translates an IP address into a domain name. This is the standard by which names e.g. www.flowersrus.com are translated into numbers, e.g., so the Internet knows the server locations where the address is located.

A system of servers located throughout the Internet that handles Internet connections and the routing of e-mail

Transferring a file from a computer on the Internet to your own computer. Things you might download include software, images, e-mail, MIDI files, etc.

Downstream/ Upstream
Downstream refers to pulling data flowing from a source (i.e., RLAN or ISP) to the end-user.

Upstream refers to pushing data from the end-user to the Internet Service Provider or Corporate Host.

A web site construction and publishing tool offered through Macro Media. Dreamweaver uses F.T.P. to transfer files from the local computer to a remote computer.

For more information, please visit http://www.macromedia.com.

In the case of ADSL, the software driver installed on the customer’s PC translates commands between the device and programs it used to operate.

See Digital Subscriber Line.

See Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer.

See Data Source Name.

Dynamic HTML
A technology designed to add richness, interactivity, and graphical interest to Web pages by providing those pages with the ability to change and update themselves in response to user actions, without the need for repeated downloads from a server.

Dynamic IP Address
An IP address, which is temporarily assigned to a user from a pool of IP addresses, from a centrally administered server. The user has a different IP address each time s/he logs on.

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E - F


Electronic Mail
E-mail. Messages sent from one person to another via computer. This represents messages sent by users over a network to people all over the world. E-mail can also be sent automatically to a large number of addresses via a mailing list.

See Electronic Mail.

E-mail Alias
If a user has an e-mail box used for more than one purpose, they might want to create a nickname or alias for a second or third e-mail ID.

E-mail Spooling
Storing e-mail on a disk for low speed processing while the computer continues its normal operations. The e-mail is in queue until the computer is free.

A method of encoding a file for security reasons. Encryption is often used to protect credit card numbers from third parties during online purchases.

Network and Computer protocols used to define instructions for creating and maintaining Local Area Networks (LAN).

A private network, built for specific users (e.g., business clients) who don’t have access to a company’s intranet.

(Frequently Asked Questions) A compilation of answers to the most common questions on a particular subject.

File Transfer Protocol
FTP. A client/server protocol for exchanging files with a host computer.

The Internet service that transfers files from one computer to another on the Internet. You might use FTP to upload HTML files to your Web host from your own computer. A user ID and password are needed to use FTP, unless Anonymous FTP is allowed.

A combination of hardware and software, used to protect a network from unwelcome traffic. A firewall can be used to separate a LAN into two or more parts, or to control network traffic.

A security device that controls access from the Internet to a local network. It is a method of protecting one network from another network. A firewall blocks unwanted access to the protected network while giving the protected network access to networks outside of the firewall. A company will typically install a firewall to give users access to the Internet while protecting their internal information.

When a crucial router on the Internet goes down, all the routers have to tell one another about it and recalculate new routes that bypass that router. This adjustment results in large numbers of packets passing back and forth, with the result that the traffic becomes so heavy that the routing updates cannot occur properly, since the information does not make it through the traffic.

Frame Relay Service
FRS. A high speed, wide area, data transfer service that allows for the transfer of variable length frames across a wide geographical area.

A WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get)Web page editor by Microsoft. To use FrontPage to create and maintain your Web site, your hosting service must install "extensions." (CGI programs that provide the server side implementation of FrontPage) for your account.

FrontPage Extensions
See Microsoft FrontPage Extensions

See Frame Relay Service.

See File Transfer Protocol.

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G - H


See Gigabyte.

See Graphic Interchange Format.

Gb. One billion bytes.

To be more accurate, one gigabyte actually contains 1,073,741,824 bytes. Since the prefix "giga" is associated with one billion, the term gibibyte is used to define 1,073,741,824 bytes.

Any picture or image file within a Web page. Graphics are usually in GIF or JPEG format.

Graphic Interchange Format
GIF. A type of image file. GIF files are graphics or pictures, often used on Web pages. Because GIF files contain a maximum of 256 colors, this file format is ideal for simple graphics with minimal shading or color variation. Other types of graphics are better suited for the JPEG file format.

Graphical User Interface
GUI. A type of environment that represents programs, files, and options by means of icons, menus, and dialog boxes on the screen. The user can select and activate options by pointing and clicking with a mouse or, often, with the keyboard.

See Global Service Provider.

See Graphical User Interface

Also known as a computerphile – a person who is engrossed in computer technology and programming or who likes to examine the code of operating systems and other programs to see how they work. Also, a person who uses computer expertise for illicit ends, such as gaining access to computer systems without permission and tampering with programs and data.

Hard Disk
A hard disk is part of a unit, often called a "disk drive," "hard drive," or "hard disk drive," that stores and provides relatively quick access to large amounts of data on an electromagnetically charged surface or set of surfaces. Today's computers typically come with a hard disk that contains several billion bytes (gigabyte) of storage.

A single request from a Web browser for a single item from a Web server. When a browser displays a Web page that contains 2 graphics, 3 hits occur at the server: 1 hit for the HTML page itself, plus a hit for each of the two graphics.

See also Impressions

See House of Internet Protocol.

Home Directory
The root directory for a service where data files is stored. By default, the home directory and all its subdirectories are available to users.

NT clients receive the following sub-directories:
_vti_cnf (F.P.S.E.)
_vti_log (F.P.S.E.)
_vti_pvt (F.P.S.E.)
_vti_script (F.P.S.E.)
_vti_txt (F.P.S.E.)
cgi-bin (executable files must be stored here)
db (database is stored here)
w3svc# (statistical log files are stored here)

UNIX clients receive the following sub-directories:
htdocs (all webfiles must be stored here)

Home Page
The first page of a Web site. Some people choose to have only a home page, with no supporting pages.

Personal home pages allow an individual to create his/her own presence on the World Wide Web (WWW). It is the page that is retrieved and displayed by default when a user visits the Web server. The default home-page name for a server depends on the server's configuration. On most Web servers, it is index.html or index.htm. Some servers support multiple home pages.

When a new customer is uploading their website they have to be sure to overwrite the current home page (under construction) so that their own home page will show.

1. A computer system accessed by a user from a remote location. In the case of two computer systems connected via modem, the "host" is the system containing the data and the "remote" is the computer at which the user is working.

2. A computer that is connected to a TCP/IP network, including the Internet. Each host has a unique IP address.

3. As a verb, "host" means providing the infrastructure for a computer service. A company that hosts a Web server may provide the hardware and software needed to run that server, but does not supply all the content on that server.

Storing customer’s Web sites and associated documents. A host computer stores information for individuals or businesses for a fee.

Hosting Platform
Shorthand for an operating system such as Microsoft's Windows NT or (once upon a time!) DOS - the basic set of commands that tell your computer how to open applications and store files. In the early days of Internet activity, most servers operated on a Unix platform, an extremely powerful and flexible system. Unix and Microsoft's Windows NT are the popular server platforms today.

Hot Metal
A web site construction and publishing tool offered through SoftQuad. HoTMetal uses F.T.P. to transfer files from the local computer to a remote computer.

A graphically defined area in an image that contains a hyperlink. An image with hotspots is called an image map. In browsers, hotspots are invisible. Users can tell that a hotspot is present by the changing appearance of the pointer.

House of Internet Protocol
HoIP. Offers one-stop shopping for a complete solution with world-class customer service. HoIP products include:

EVPN (Enterprise Virtual Private Network)
Business Class
Online Office which offers two packages:
Online Office
Online Office Plus

On the Web Hosting Service systems, on UNIX Servers, “htdocs” is the required directory to hold the client’s web files.

See HyperText Markup Language.

See HyperText Transfer Protocol.

A central device that connects several computers together.

A jump from text or from an image map to a page or other type of file on the World Wide Web. In World Wide Web pages, hyperlinks are the primary way to navigate between pages and among Web sites.

Any text within a document that is linked to another location. The other location could be within the same document, or a different document. Clicking hypertext with your mouse will activate the link.

Originally, any textual information on a computer containing jumps to other information. The hypertext jumps are called hyperlinks. In World Wide Web pages, hypertext is the primary way to navigate between pages and among Web sites. Hypertext on World Wide Web pages has been expanded to include hyperlinks from text and hyperlinks from image maps.

HyperText Markup Language
HTML. The coding language used to create documents on the World Wide Web. It is the standard language for describing the contents and structure of pages on the World Wide Web.

HyperText Transfer Protocol
HTTP. The Internet protocol that allows World Wide Web browsers to retrieve information from servers. When you enter a URL in your browser to visit a Web page, an HTTP command is sent to the Web server. This command tells the server to fetch and transmit the requested Web page.

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I - J


See Internet Control Message Protocol.


Another name for Long Reach DSL. This service extends DSL service up to 30,000 feet from a Central Office location. The service will not be asymmetric as is ADSL, but will be the same speed downstream as well as upstream. This service will be for data only and will not have the ability to deliver voice on the same POTS line as ADSL. For example, LongReach, at 144 kbps, is PBI’s solution for customers in some metropolitan areas.

Image Map
A graphic used for multiple navigation on a Web page. Image maps contain HTML code that turn specific areas of graphics into links.

The actual number of people who've seen a specific Web page. Impressions are much more accurate than hits when discerning how much traffic your Web page actually receives. Impressions are sometimes called "page views."

Inside Wiring
If customer orders a Full Installation of the initial basic wire run and jack will be included in the labor rate. If the customer requires "Additional" wiring or jacks, they still have the option of doing the work themselves, contacting a vendor of their choice or using Pacific Bell.

The vast collection of interconnected networks that use Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite of protocols. The Internet currently encompasses more than 15,000 networks connecting more than 250 million users and is growing rapidly.

Internet Control Message Protocol

ICMP. Protocol that, with the support of Internet Protocol, provides diagnostic functions. It is part of the Internet Protocol.

Internet Information Server 4.0

IIS 4.0 is the web server application installed on NT servers used for hosting and delivering web sites.

Internet Network Information Center
InterNIC. The InterNIC registry is where domain names are registered. Fees are required to register names. The address is http://internic.net

An organization operated by Network Solutions that controls the registration of new domain names. When you purchase a domain name, the InterNIC will bill you $70 for the first two years of ownership and $35 per year thereafter.

Internet Protocol
IP. Internet software that divides data into packets for transmission over the Internet. Computers must run IP to communicate across the Internet. See also TCP.

Internet Protocol Address
IP Address. A numeric address given to servers and users connected to the Internet. The Network and End-User’s equipment addresses are represented by a sequence of numbers.

The IP address is either allocated:

Static = Permanent assignment, or
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), which randomly assigns IP addresses.
Unique Internet address, such as 123.456.789.012 is used by a customer on a TCP/IP network. The Internet is a TCP/IP network.

See Static IP and Dynamic IP

Internet Protocol Number / Address
IP Number (or IP Address). The unique 4-part number assigned to each and every computer linked to the Internet (e.g., When you connect to the Internet, your ISP assigns you an IP number for the duration of your connection. DNS converts domain names into IP addresses.

Internet Relay Chat
IRC. A method of real time communication, powered by a network of servers.

Internet Service Provider
ISP. A company that provides access to the Internet. They provide Internet services such as E-mail. They issue Static or Dynamically Allocated IP addresses.

See Internet Network Information Center.

A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet, but only for internal use.

See Internet Protocol.

IP Address
See Internet Protocol Address.

IP Number (or IP Address)
See Internet Protocol Number / Address.

See Internet Relay Chat.

See Internet Service Provider.

Unlike UNIX, NT anonymous visitors to a web site are authenticated in the background as the IUSR_Servername.

The IUSR must have at least Browse permissions to your web site so that anyone and everyone can navigate throughout your site without being prompted for a password.

A programming language invented by Sun Microsystems. Java programs (or "applets") can be downloaded from the Internet to your computer. They are often used to enhance Web pages. Common Java applets used on Web pages include animation, calculators, and counters.

A scripting language that interacts with HTML source code, allowing for interactive Web sites. JavaScript is used for things such as "rollover buttons" (graphics that change color when you run your mouse over them), rotating banners, MIDI jukeboxes, pop-up windows, etc.

Java Servlets
Servlets are Java based applications for server side application.

Joint Photographic Experts Group
JPEG (or JPG). A type of image file, similar to GIF. Whereas the GIF file format is limited to 256 colors or less, JPEG files use millions of colors and can often be compressed to a smaller kilobyte size, making Web pages load faster.

See Joint Photographic Experts Group.

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K - L


See Kilobyte.

Kbps – Kilobits per second

A measurement of bandwidth where one Kbps equals one thousand bits per second. For example, 384 Kbps equals 384,000 bits per second.


KB. A thousand bytes. To be more accurate, one kilobyte actually contains 1024 bytes. Since the prefix "kilo" is associated with 1000, the term kilobyte is used to define 1024 bytes.


See Local Area Network.

Line Conditioning

Customers can request to have their line(s) conditioned to remove certain impairments such as the removal of coils, bridge taps, and /or repeaters.

A free version, or flavour, of UNIX.

Load Coil

A metallic, doughnut shaped device used on local loops to extend their reach. Load coils severely limit the bandwidth in digital communications.

Local Area Network

LAN. Group(s) of computers linked together via routers and bridges. Network of computers within close proximity to each other, usually in same office or group of offices. Allows user capabilities of sharing and utilizing databases, plus software.

Local Root Web

In FrontPage terms, this is the web site that resides on the client’s local machine.

Log Files
Log files store information about hits to the client’s web site. All shared hosting customers have access to their log files, in either raw or graphical format. Log files are compiled into graphical format daily (Unix) or weekly (NT) and they contain information relevant to a website.

For more information, please see AWStats.

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M - N


Mail Forwarding
An e-mail feature that forwards e-mail from one address to another. When you sign up for a hosting plan, you'll receive a domain e-mail account (you@yourname.com). You might also have an e-mail address provided by your local ISP. With mail forwarding, all e-mail addressed to you@yourname.com will be sent to your "real" e-mail address.

Additional mail forwarding options include the ability to forward different yourname.com e-mail to specific addresses on the Internet. For example, e-mail addressed to webmaster@yourname.com could forward to your "real" e-mail address (provided by your ISP), while sales@yourname.com could forward to a different e-mail address.

Mailing List

A group discussion conducted through e-mail messages, specific to a topic or common interest. When a message is sent to a mailing list, each list subscriber receives a copy.


See Megabyte.

Mbps – Million bits per second
A measurement of digital bandwidth where one Mbps equals one million bits per second.

MB. A million bytes; a thousand kilobytes. To be more accurate, one megabyte actually contains 1,048,576 bytes. Since the prefix "mega" is associated with one million, the term mebibyte is used to define 1,048,576 bytes.

Merchant Account

Merchants, from the smallest on-line storefront to a large "brick and mortar" retailer, who accept and process credit cards need a Merchant Account. A merchant account enables merchants to accept and clear credit card transactions.

META tag

Hidden HTML code that contains information about a Web page, such as who created the page, what the page is about, and which keywords best describe the page's content. Some search engines use this information to list and categorize Web pages by topic.

Microsoft Access

Microsoft Access is the best selling database in the world since it comes bundled in Microsoft Office. Powerful and fully compatible with ASP scripting, this feature is available on NT virtual servers only.

Microsoft FrontPage Extensions

Programs that provide the server-side implementation of many FrontPage 2000 features. FrontPage software communicates with the extension to direct requests to FrontPage programs that allow features such as uploading and downloading files, setting privileges, and browse-time WebBot components.

See Musical Instrument Digital Interface.


See Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.

Mini SQL

mSQL. A lightweight database engine designed to provide fast access to stored data. See also SQL


A device that connects your computer to a phone line. It is used to send data over analog telephone lines. It converts computer data, which are digital signals, to analog signals at the sending end and converts analog signals to digital signals at the receiving end so that the receiving computer can read it. Used for Dial-up Internet Access. A modem may be internal or external to a PC.


See Mini SQL.


The ability of a Web server to support more than one Internet address and more than one home page on a single server. Also called multihoming.

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

MIME. The standard for attaching non-text files (such as graphics, spreadsheets, word processor documents, sound files, etc.) to e-mail messages.

Musical Instrument Digital Interface

MIDI. A digital sound file, often used to play music on Web pages.

MX Record

Mail Exchange (MX) in the Internet's Domain Name System (D.N.S.) is used to resolve your mail server’s host name to it is I.P. address.


MySQL (pronounced "my ess cue el," not "my sequel") is an open source relational database management system (RDBMS) that uses Structured Query Language (SQL ), the most popular language for adding, accessing, and processing data in a database. Because it is open source, anyone can download mySQL and tailor it to their needs in accordance with the general public license. MySQL is noted mainly for its speed, reliability, and flexibility. Most agree, however, that it works best when managing content and not executing transactions.


The informal rules of Internet etiquette.


Derived from the term citizen, referring to a citizen of the Internet. The term implies civic responsibility and participation.


Two or more computers connected together for the purpose of sharing resources.

Network Interface Card

NIC. Printed circuit expansion board. Executes the code needed by the computer to connect with the host or some other device. (Forms the interface between the computer and the DSL line).

For ADSL this will be either an ATM/Ethernet PC Card or an Ethernet/Macintosh NIC.

Network Location

In a URL, the unique name that identifies an Internet server. A network location has two or more parts, separated by periods, as in my.network.location. Also called host name and Internet address.

News Group

A place on the Internet where users converse on a particular topic.

An Internet forum at which people meet to discuss a variety of topics. Newsgroups are typically accessed through a news reader, a program on your computer that connects you to a news server on the Internet.


See Network Interface Card.

Non-loaded Cable

Outside cable free of loading coils used to increase signal strength on voice grade lines over great distances.

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O - P


OC3 Lines
See Optical Carrier Lines.

Operating System
OS. This is the software that manages a computer system. Windows 95 is an OS.

Optical Carrier Lines
OC3 Lines. Web Hosting companies generally connect to the Internet through T1, T3, and less frequently OC lines. OC3 lines which carry information along the Internet backbone, transfer data at 155 Mbps, more than three times as fast as T1 lines. Many hosting companies use T3, however Pacific Bell uses redundant OC3 lines to ensure that customers’ sites remain responsive.

See Operating System.

Page Views
See impressions.

Pair Gain
The multiplexing of multiple phone conversations over a lesser number of physical facilities. Usually refers to electronic systems used in outside plant - from the central office to the subscriber’s premises.

Parked Domain Name
To register a domain name, one must define Name Servers where their domain name will reside. By specifying Name Servers does not imply that the client need sign up for a web hosting package.

A text string that allows a user access to an Internet service, if the service requires it.

The portion of a URL that identifies the folders containing a file. For example, in the URL http://my.web.site/hello/world /greetings.htm, the path is /hello/world/.

PC Card
Term used for laptop NIC cards.

The act of one national Internet backbone provider accepting and passing traffic from another national provider.

When the Net went commercial in 1995, four official NAPs were created: three run by the telephone companies in San Francisco, Chicago and New York, and the fourth in Washington, D.C., known as MAE-East (Metropolitan Area Exchange-East). Four more MAEs have become de facto NAPs, plus three historical exchanges (two Federal plus CIX) add up to about a dozen major exchange points within the U.S.

National ISPs generally connect at all four of the original ones and all MAEs. This is known as public peering. In addition, due to the congestion at these exchanges, large ISPs agree to peer privately and interconnect with each other at many other points throughout the country where equipment at both companies is conveniently located. Dropping the packet off earlier to the destination backbone eliminates considerable traffic.

Permanent Virtual Circuit
PVC. A virtual circuit that provides the equivalent of a dedicated private line service over a packet switching network.

The capability to access a specified resource.

Practical Extraction and Report Language is a dynamic scripting language that allows for the submission and retrieval of data to and from a database that can be used on both a UNIX and NT platform.

P.E.R.L. files commonly end with a “.pl” extension.

Personal Home Page

See Pretty Good Privacy

In Web programming, PHP is a script language and interpreter, similar to JavaScript and Microsoft's VBScript, that is freely available and used primarily on Linux Web servers. PHP (the initials come from the earliest version of the program, which was called "Personal Home Page Tools") is a cross-platform alternative to Microsoft's Active Server Page (ASP) technology (which runs only on Microsoft's Windows NT/2000 servers). As with ASP, the PHP script is embedded within a Web page along with its HTML. Before the page is sent to a user that has requested it, the Web server calls PHP to interpret and perform the operations called for in the PHP script. An HTML page that includes a PHP script is typically given a file name suffix of ".php" ".php3," or ".phtml". Like ASP, PHP can be thought of as "dynamic HTML pages," since content will vary based on the results of interpreting the script.

PHP is free and offered under an open source license. The latest version is PHP4.

A program that is used for testing networks. It sends an ICMP Echo packet to a specified address and waits for a response, then reports success or failure.

A unit of measurement for graphics or monitor resolution. A pixel is one dot on a computer screen. Most computer monitors are set to a resolution of 800 x 600, meaning 800 pixels wide by 600 pixels high.

One of a set of software modules that integrate into Web browsers to offer a range of interactive and multimedia capabilities.

Software programs that enhance other programs or applications on your computer. There are plug-ins for Internet browsers, graphics programs, and other applications.

Point of Presence
Point of Presence is a central location for telephone or Internet connectivity.

Point to Point Protocol
PPP. The protocol that allows a computer to use a telephone line and a modem to make TCP/IP connections, connecting users to the Internet.

Point-to-Point Connection
A direct connection established between two devices.

See Post Office Protocol or Point of Presence

See Post Office Protocol, Version 3.

A number identifying a certain Internet application.

The following are common port numbers used by web servers:

20,21 FTP
22 Telnet
23 S.S.H.
25 S.M.T.P.
53 D.N.S.
80 W.W.W.
110 P.O.P.
137 NetBIOS name service
138 NetBIOS datagram service
139 NetBIOS session service
443 Secure Socket Layer

Post Office Protocol
POP. A set of rules by which a client machine can retrieve mail from a mail server.

Point Of Presence: a telephone number that provides dial-up Internet access. ISPs usually provide several POPs so users can gain Internet access with local phone calls. For the Internet service this can be the "central office" of the ISP.

Post Office Protocol, Version 3
POP3. The central repository where electronic mail is stored before the recipient downloads it; analogous to a U.S. Post Office box where mail is stored waiting to be picked up. In an e-mail address, the POP3 host is the part to the right of the @ symbol.

See Point to Point Protocol.

See Point to point over ATM.

See Point to point protocol over Ethernet.

Pretty Good Privacy
PGP. The protocol used to encrypt email.

A standard for the exchange of information. There are several different types of protocols (e.g., FTP, TCP/IP) used by various computers and software programs.

Agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices.

A method of accessing a document or service over the Internet, such as File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Also called type.

Proxy Server
An Internet server that acts as a firewall, mediating traffic between a protected network and the Internet.

In FrontPage lingo, publish is synonymous with transferring files to a remote server.

Contrary to F.T.P., FrontPage uses port 80 to transfer files from a local computer to a remote computer.

See Permanent Virtual Circuit.


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Q - R


Quality of Service (QoS) Terms
Constant Bit Rate Transmission of information, usually voice and video, is at a fixed bit rate over a logical connection.

Variable Bit Rate Transmission of information, usually data, is at varying bit rates over logical connections.

Unspecified Bit Rate Transmission of information, usually data, is (AKA Best Effort) at unspecified bit rates or (best effort) over logical connections.

Best Effort defined as:

When Internet or path to it becomes congested, bit rate will be adjusted to achieve best obtainable speed.

See Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service.

RAID (redundant array of independent disks) is a way of storing the same data in different places (thus, redundantly) on multiple hard disk.

See Random Access Memory.

Random Access Memory
RAM. This is reusable computer memory, available to all programs on a computer. A computer with 32M of RAM has about 32 million bytes of memory that programs can use. RAM is read/write memory, as opposed to ROM which is read-only memory.

Read-Only Memory
ROM. A computer's unchangeable memory. It's used to store programs that start the computer and run diagnostic functions.

Client software that plays audio and video media. Providers of news, entertainment, sports, and business content can create audio and video multimedia content, and deliver it online to audiences worldwide. To create your own RealPlayer files and offer them on your Web site, your hosting service must install special "extensions" for your account.

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service
RADIUS. A customer inputs a user name and password which authorizes access to the ISP’s network.

Remote Local Area Network
RLAN. Allows a user to access their office LAN from a remote location via, in this case, DSL. A User can use all systems, databases, and software as if they are in their office.

Telco device used to regenerate and replicate telephone signals over great distances (not allowed on DSL Line).

Resolution (Screen or Monitor)
The way things appear on your computer monitor. Resolution is measured in pixels. The lower the resolution, the larger things appear on your screen. Most computer monitors are set at 800 x 600 resolution, meaning 800 pixels wide by 600 pixels high. Some people's monitors are set at 1024 x 768 or higher. Others are set at 640 x 480. When designing a Web site, keep in mind that your Web pages will look different to viewers depending on their monitor resolutions.

See Remote Local Area Network.

Connecting to your Internet account from somewhere outside your normal service area. Additional charges usually apply for this capability.

See Read-Only Memory.

A device that finds the best path for a data packet to be sent from one network to another. The router controls the direction and translation of data between different devices. Provides firewall security.

Router-based Security
The Cayman router comes with NAT (Network Address Translation). NAT allows an entire LAN (Local Area Network) to share one public IP address that is visible to the outside world while internally assigning private IP addresses (cannot be seen by the outside world) to the rest of the devices on the LAN.

This way the network is more secure since only one of its devices is known to the outside world. NAT enables the LAN's internal devices to access the Internet while blocking unauthorized outsiders from entering the LAN.


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S - T


Search Engine
A directory of Internet content. Search engines use spiders to search for Web pages, and then list those pages according to the content they contain. When you use a search engine to find specific information, the search engine provides a detailed list of Web pages that best match your inquiry. Popular search engines include Excite, Snap, Yahoo, and Infoseek.

Secure Socket Layer
SSL. A protocol which is designed to provide secure communications on the Internet.

Secure Sockets Layer
SSL. A low-level protocol that enables secure communications between a server and a browser.

A program designed by Netscape to enable encrypted communications across the Internet. It provides privacy, authentication, and message integrity. SSL is often used in communications between browsers and servers. A URL that begins with "https" indicates that an SSL connection will be used on the Web page.

During an SSL connection, each side sends a Security Certificate to the other. Both sides then encrypt what they send, ensuring that only the intended recipient can decode it.

Security Certificate
Information used to establish a secure connection by SSL protocol. In order for an SSL connection to be created, both sides must have a valid Security Certificate, issued by the Certificate Authority.

A computer that offers services on a network. On the World Wide Web, the server is the computer that runs the Web server program that responds to HTTP protocol requests by providing Web pages. Also called host.

A computer or program that manages network resources. The term can refer to a program, or to the machine on which the program is running. A single server machine could be running several programs, thus providing different services to users on the network.

Server Side Includes
Add the convenience and flexibility of embedding CGI capability into your web pages.

Set Allocation
A pre-determined number of e-mail aliases.

Shared Web Hosting
A service that provides the customer with the ability to have a "Web-presence" without the cost of maintaining their own Web server and access.

For small to medium-sized customers needing Web presence, the best choice is shared server hosting. The site is located on one of the Web host’s servers – the equivalent of leasing office space. A certain portion of the building is yours, with your name on the door, and you can rely on the building manager (the Web host) for security, maintenance and facilities management. This is called "shared" hosting because your home page has its own domain name (www.yourcompanywebsite.com), and appears to exist as a stand-alone server.

It operates with the speed and efficiency, however, without a subsidiary address (www.WebHost.com/yourcompanysite/) – its location is invisible to visitors. You gain the instant credibility of name recognition while investing only a fraction of the cost of dedicated server.

Shock Wave
A multimedia application by MacroMedia for dynamic online visual presentations.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SMTP. Defines a way two mail servers communicate in order to transmit and receive e-mail messages.

Site Builder
A user-friendly, easy to use Web site creation tool, which includes fifty pre-designed templates, that enables customers to create their own Web sites.

Site Traffic
Refers to the number of pages or hits a customer’s Web site will experience in any given month.

A site traffic of 3 Gb is equivalent to 100,00 pages served pages assuming that an average page size is 30 kb: 4 Gb is equivalent to 133,333 pages served, etc.

See Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

Spam (or Spamming)
Junk e-mail or junk newsgroup posts. Spam is usually some sort of advertising, inappropriately sent to a mailing list or newsgroup. Spam not only wastes the recipient's time, but also misuses network bandwidth.

Spectrum Management
Process performed by Engineering to insure DSL is placed correctly in our network with dissimilar types of services (i.e., T1, HDSL, and ISDN). These other services and DSL act as "disturbers" towards each other, causing interference and possible loss in transmission of their data.

An Internet program (used by a search engine) that explores the Web at large. Spiders collect and index Web page addresses based on content found at those pages.

A device put on a customer’s premise to "split" a customer’s signal into 2 paths: data and voice.

See Structured Query Language.

Secure Socket Layer.

See Secure Sockets Layer.

Static IP
Referred to as fixed IP address. It is an address that does not change. It is permanently assigned to a specific computer or customer.

Streaming Media
Two types of audio services are supported: Real Audio and Windows Media. Both these servers are remote servers to the local web servers.

Basic Real Audio and Video streaming use a batch of shared streams that are allocated on a first-come, first-served basis, and is available at no additional cost on some or all web packages. Dedicated streams can be purchased on a per-stream basis.

Structured Query Language
SQL. A specialized programming language used to send queries to databases. Many Web-based programs use SQL to store and retrieve information about users and products from databases.

The same or even speeds in both directions. Interference is greater with symmetric signals.

Occurring at regular intervals. The opposite of asynchronous. Most communication between computers and devices is asynchronous - - it can occur any time and at irregular intervals. Communication within a computer, however, is usually synchronous and is governed by the microprocessor clock.

See Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

Telnet is the way you can access someone elses computer, assuming they have given you permission. (Such a computer is frequently called a host computer). More technically, Telnet is a user command and an underlying TCP/IP protocol for accessing remote computers. Secure Telnet is often referred to SSH.

Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
TCP/IP. Internet networking software that controls the transmission of packets of data over the Internet. Among its tasks, TCP checks for lost packets, puts the data from multiple packets into the correct order, and requests those missing or damaged packets be resent. Computers must run TCP to communicate with World Wide Web servers.


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U - V


See Unspecified Bit Rate.

Uniform Resource Locator
URL. The global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web. It is the name for the Internet address of a particular individual, device, or Web site. For example, the URL for IBM is: http://www.ibm.com.

URL is a string that supplies the Internet address of a resource on the World Wide Web, along with the protocol by which the resource is accessed. The most common URL type is "http," which gives the Internet address of a World Wide Web page. Some other URL types are "gopher," which gives the Internet address of a Gopher directory, and "ftp," which gives the address of an FTP resource.

An operating system typically used on proprietary workstations and computers. Some World Wide Web servers run on UNIX systems. PBIS offers Web Hosting on a UNIX platform, "Sun Solaris Enterprise Server." Other variations of UNIX include: SGI, LINUX, Santa Cruz Operation UNIX, IBM AIX, iPlanet Server.

Full power redundancy ensures your site will not be harmed during a power outage.

Unspecified Bit Rate
UBR. Service utilized by a Private Corporation, as an alternative to a Virtual Private Network taking advantage of DSL services.

See Uniform Resource Locator.

USB (Universal Serial Bus)
A data communications port installed on the newest PCs and can support speeds of up to 12 Mbps. USB ports are represented by a three-forked trident symbol.

Virtual Hosting
Hosting service designed to provide you with the tools you need to effectively manage your presence on the Internet.

Virtual Private Network
VPN. Network set up by private corporations to bypass the Internet. At this time DSL offers "Best Effort" or UBR.

See Virtual Private Network.

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W - X


Web Hosting
A service that provides a physical location for a Web site. Customers’ sites reside on computers stored in secure and climate-controlled environments and permanently linked to the Internet through high-speed data lines.

These computers store the Web pages that make up Web sites. As soon as your pages are installed on the server they become available to visitors and customers on the Internet - providing they have the correct address. (www.yourcompanywebsite.com)

Web Site
A collection of Web files that includes a beginning file called a home page. A company or an individual tells you how to get to their Web site by giving you the address of their home page. From the home page, you can get to all the other pages on their site.

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Y - Z


Zone Record
A zone record defines the domain name to I.P. address resolution for services such as WWW, FTP, and MX.

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