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Glossary

Got a little mixed up with HDMI and HDTV? Don't worry - you've come to the right place for help!

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  • 10Base-T:
    One of the more common types of Ethernet Local Area Networking (LAN) cabling. Specifies 10 Mbps (baseband) carried over twisted pair.
  • 56Kbps:
    Modems=More appropriately called Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Modems, these modems manipulate the way the telephone system works to send data to an analog "modem" type device at speeds of up to 56,000 bits per second (56Kbps). 56K modems work by using ISDN telephone equipment at one end of the connection to manipulate the PCM codes sent across the telephone network. When these PCM sample codes reach the Codec they are translated into a specific series of voltage changes that a PCM modem knows how to interpret. Data sent out by a 56Kbps modem is subject to the same physical restrictions of any modem, so its top "back channel" speed is 33.6Kbps. 56Kbps modems are built against the ITU-T V.90 or V.92 standards.
  • 802.11:
    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers standard for wireless local area network interoperability.
A
  • Access_Point_(AP):
    Wireless access points are specially-configured nodes on wireless local area networks (WLANs). Access points act as a central transmitter and receiver of WLAN radio signals.
  • Ad_hoc_network:
    A wireless network composed only of stations and no access point. Also referred to as an Independent Basic Service Set Network (IBSS Network).
  • Anonymous_FTP:
    Using the FTP function of the Internet without a secret login ID and password. You just use anonymous as your login and your email address as the password. Often permitted on large systems that share some of their files with outside users who otherwise would not be able to login.
  • Archie:
    An ancient Internet search tool, not used much since way back in the good old days of 1994. It's an archive of filenames maintained at Internet FTP sites. Don't pine its passing, you didn't miss anything - the Web is much more fun.
  • ASCII:
    (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) A data specification that standardizes the representation of 256 basic computer characters, including the English alphabet, numbers and punctuation.
  • ATM:
    (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) This is a special connection-oriented packet-like switching and multiplexing technique (using fixed sized cells), that gives the user high bandwidth and low delay.
  • Authentication:
    The process a station uses to announce its identify to another station. IEEE 802.11 specifies two forms of authentication: open system and shared key.
  • AWStats:
    A statistical tool that generates advanced web, streaming, ftp or mail server statistics graphically.
B
  • Bandwidth:
    he transmission capacity of the lines that carry the Internet's electronic traffic. Historically, it has imposed severe limitations on the Internet's ability to deliver all that we demand that it deliver, but using Cox High Speed Internet eliminates many of your bandwidth problems.
  • BIND:
    (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) An implementation of the Domain Name System protocols.
  • Bit:
    This is the smallest measure of computerized data, either 1 or 0. Eight bits equal one byte, or one character.
  • Bluetooth:
    A new wireless technology being developed by Ericsson Inc., Intel Corp., Nokia Corp. and Toshiba. The technology enables data connections between electronic devices such as desktop computers, wireless phones, electronic organizers and printers in the 2.4 GHz range. Bluetooth would replace cable or infrared connections for such devices.
  • Bookmarks:
    A special feature of the Internet Explorer that enables you to store the location of favorite Web pages in folders for quick future access. This is a powerful and important feature because many Web addresses are difficult to remember. When a Web site is added to your Bookmarks you can give the site any name you choose and then return to it later by reference to that name.
  • BPS:
    (Bits per second) A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 28.8K modem can move 28,800 bits per second, or about 3600 characters per second.
  • Broadband:
    Describes a communications medium capable of transmitting a relatively large amount of data over a given period of time. A communications channel of high bandwidth.
  • Browser:
    A client program used to view various kinds of Internet resources. You use a browser (e.g., Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer) to view Web pages from your computer.
  • BSD:
    Berkeley Software Distribution, a free version, or flavour, of UNIX.
  • Bug:
    An error in coding or logic that causes a program to malfunction or to produce incorrect results. Also, a recurring physical problem that prevents a system or set of components from working together properly.
  • Bulletin_Board_System:
    BBS. A computerized meeting system. BBS users can have discussions, make announcements, and upload or download files. There are thousands of BBSs around the world; many of them rely on a direct modem-to-modem connection over a phone line, using a single computer.
  • Byte:
    A set of 8 bits that represent a single character.
C
  • Cable_Modem:
    An electronic adapter that permits a personal computer to receive Internet data from the high-speed information resources of a cable television system. Cable modems permit personal computers to receive Internet information at rates of up to hundreds of times faster than typical, consumer market telephone modems. A cable modem attaches to a personal computer through a network interface card (NIC) installed inside the computer. The cable television system's cable brings the information into the cable modem and then the cable modem sends the information into the computer through the NIC.
  • Cache:
    A local storage of recently accessed web files from a Web server. To modify your cache settings in Internet Explorer browser, from the menu bar, select View / Tools - Internet Options ý General - Temporary Internet Files. To modify your cache settings in Netscape Navigator, from the Edit menu choose Preferences ý Advanced - Cache.
  • Certificate_Authority:
    An issuer of Security Certificates used in SSL connections. Two prime examples are verisign (www.verisign.com)and thawte (www.thawte.com)
  • CGI:
    (Common Gateway Interface) A protocol that allows a Web page to run a program on a Web server. Forms, counters, and guest books are common examples of CGI programs. CGI scripts define how the Web server and programs send information back and forth. These scripts allow visitors to interact with the site and give the Webmaster valuable information about a Web page. CGI scripts are indicated by a file extension ýcgiý.
  • CHMOD:
    UNIX command for changing permissions. Each file is assigned permissions based upon the ownership, the group membership, and the accessibility of the file to non-authenticated users. Permissions are assigned in a combination of three variants: Read, Write, and Execute.
  • Client_/_Server:
    Computer technology that separates network-connected computers and their users into two categories: clients and servers. When you access information from a computer on a network, you are a client. The computer that delivers the information is the server. A server stores information and makes it available to any authorized client upon request.
  • Cold_Fusion:
    Available on the NT platform, Allaire's Cold Fusion is a dynamic scripting language that allows for the submission and retrieval of data to and from a database. Cold Fusion files are indicated by the file extension ýCFMý. For more information, please visit http://www.allaire.com.
  • Cookie:
    A piece of information sent to a browser by a Web server upon accessing a Web site. The next time the browser accesses that site, the server retrieves the information. This is how some Web pages "remember" your previous visits; for example, an E-Commerce site might use a cookie to remember which items you've placed in your online shopping cart. Cookies can also store user preference information, log-in data, etc.
  • Cyberspace:
    A term, coined by science fiction author William Gibson, that represents the total universe of all interconnected computers.
D
  • Daemon:
    This Unix term refers to a specific type of program or agent designed to work in the background. Using a daemon, a program can simply hand off data to the smaller program and go on to more important things. For example, a print daemon could handle print requests from multiple users and applications, freeing them for other tasks.
  • Data_Source_Name:
    Data Source Name stores information about how to connect to the indicated data provider, for example, a database. A data source name entry links a database with database drivers, software that has knowledge of how to communicate with your type of database. Customers may also create a DSNless connection to remove the requirement for server side intervention.
  • Data_Transfer:
    In general, any outward-bound traffic from a Web site is considered to be data transfer. Each time a Web page, image, MIDI file, etc. is loaded, data transfer is generated.
  • Data_Transfer-Bandwidth:
    Refers to the amount of electronic data sent over the network each month in response to visitor's requests. This varies depending on the size of your Web pages and the number of visitors to your site. A 50-kilobyte home page that's viewed by 20,000 visitors each month will use one gigabyte of data transfer per month (50,000 bytes x 20,000 hits_= 1 billion bytes, or one gigabyte). Bandwidth is metered by the byte. It's best to estimate your expected bandwidth and keep track of events and site promotions that could result in sudden increases in visitor traffic.
  • Database:
    A collection of data: part numbers, product codes, customer information, etc. It usually refers to data organized and stored on a computer that can be searched and retrieved by a computer program.
  • Dedicated_Web_Hosting:
    The rental or lease of a server and the network bandwidth to the Internet for access to the server. Offers one customer per server. If you're building a more complex corporate or E-Commerce site, you'll need more space - a Web server dedicated to your business, the equivalent of an entire office building. The host is still responsible for site security, maintenance, and technical support, and you aren't saddled with the prohibitive costs of setting up your own server and Internet connection.
  • DHCP:
    An industry-standard protocol that dynamically assigns Internet Protocol (I.P.) configurations to computers.
  • Dial-Up_Internet_Access:
    Connects the user via an analog or ISDN line. The user must dial in to a modem each time the Internet is accessed.
  • Digital_Special_Access_Circuits_(DS3/OC3):
    Fiber DS3/OC3 High Capacity Circuits between DSLAM and ATM backbone network, considered our infra-structure.
  • Disk_Capacity_(Space):
    The amount of space on the host server that is used for a customer's Web site. Example: A disk capacity of 40MB is equivalent to 1200 Web site (8 ý x 11) pages of text only assuming that an average page size is 30 kb. However, when graphics or photos are added, disk capacity will be reduced depending on the size of graphics or photos added.
  • Disturbers:
    ADSL service cannot be provided to a location because other digital services, within the same cable sheath, will cause excessive interference upon an ADSL service. This interference may hinder ADSL from working at all, or cause the service to work below acceptable service parameters. ADSLs tolerance of interference from other services is relative to the length of the physical loop.
  • DNS:
    Domain Name Services. DNS functions asýthe Internet's "yellow pages." Each web server, email server, etc. has an IP address (Internet Protocol address) that is unique to that server. Trying to remember the IP address of your favorite web sites would be impossible, so DNS was created. DNS is the Internet service that translates domain names (e.g. yahoo.com)ýinto IP addresses. Because domain names are alphabetic, they're easier to remember. The Internet, however, is really based on theýIP address. Every time you use a domain name, a DNS service must translate the name into the corresponding IP address. For example, the domain name www.example.com might translate to 198.105.232.4. When you type in a web site, such as Coxbusiness.com, your browser connects to a DNS server on the internet. Your browser asks for the IP address of the web site Coxbusiness.com. Once the IP is obtained, a request is made to the web server for the page you requested.
  • Domain_Alias_(Nicknames):
    An alternative domain name that points to an existing site. You can have several domain aliases that point to one original domain or Web site. They are like nicknames; they allow surfers to access pages without having to know the exact domain name. For example, www.uca.com directs you to www.varsity.com. These two companies are interrelated so both sites go to the same IP address. Customers want it because it increases the likelihood their page will be used if they can use multiple names to get to the same place.
  • Domain_Email:
    Electronic mail that is personalized to a customer's Web site. For example, domain Email is: Yourname@yourcompany.com
  • Domain_Name:
    Your address on the Internet. It is linked to a numerical address, called an IP address (e.g. 209.235.31.171). A domain name server is used to translate a domain name into an IP address. Domain names consist of two parts: the actual name, and the hierarchy to which it belongs. The hierarchies available for public use are .com, .net, and .org.
  • Download:
    Transferring a file from a computer on the Internet to your own computer. Things you might download include software, images, Email, MIDI files, etc.
  • Downstream/_Upstream:
    Downstream refers to pulling data flowing from a source (i.e., RLAN or ISP) to the end-user. Upstream refers to pushing data from the end-user to the Internet Service Provider or Corporate Host.
  • Dreamweaver:
    A web site construction and publishing tool offered through Macro Media. Dreamweaver uses F.T.P. to transfer files from the local computer to a remote computer. For more information, please visit http://www.macromedia.com.
  • Driver:
    In the case of ADSL, the software driver installed on the customer's PC translates commands between the device and programs it used to operate.
  • DSL:
    (Digital Subscriber Line)Technology which combines Voice and Data on same wire pair. Various types include (but are not limited to):
  • DSLAM:
    (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer) Central office group of devices consisting of DSL modem banks, multilplexers, and routers. The DSLAM consolidates or concentrates all the data traffic coming in from individual DSL lines and passes them on to a backbone network for distribution to Internet service provider networks or corporate networks.
  • Dynamic_HTML:
    A technology designed to add richness, interactivity, and graphical interest to Web pages by providing those pages with the ability to change and update themselves in response to user actions, without the need for repeated downloads from a server.
  • Dynamic_IP_Address:
    An IP address, which is temporarily assigned to a user from a pool of IP addresses, from a centrally administered server. The user has a different IP address each time s/he logs on.
E
  • Email:
    (Electronic Mail) Messages sent from one person to another via computer. This represents messages sent by users over a network to people all over the world. Email can also be sent automatically to a large number of addresses via a mailing list.
  • Email_Alias:
    If a user has an Email box used for more than one purpose, they might want to create a nickname or alias for a second or third Email ID.
  • Email_Spooling:
    Storing Email on a disk for low speed processing while the computer continues its normal operations. The Email is in queue until the computer is free.
  • Encryption:
    The process of changing data into a form that can be read only by the intended receiver. To decipher the message, the receiver of the encrypted data must have the proper decryption key.
  • Ethernet:
    Network and Computer protocols used to define instructions for creating and maintaining Local Area Networks (LAN).
  • Extranet:
    A private network, built for specific users (e.g., business clients) who don't have access to a company's intranet.
F
  • FAQs:
    (Frequently Asked Questions) Files that are maintained at Internet sites to answer frequently asked questions so that new users can more quickly get oriented to the system. It's good netiquette to read the FAQs first and poor netiquette to ask questions that are answered in a FAQ.
  • Firewall:
    A combination of hardware and software that protects a local area network (LAN) from Internet hackers. It separates the network into two or more parts and restricts outsiders to the area "outside" the firewall. Private or sensitive information is kept "inside" the firewall.
  • Flapping:
    When a crucial router on the Internet goes down, all the routers have to tell one another about it and recalculate new routes that bypass that router. This adjustment results in large numbers of packets passing back and forth, with the result that the traffic becomes so heavy that the routing updates cannot occur properly, since the information does not make it through the traffic.
  • FrontPage:
    A WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get)Web page editor by Microsoft. To use FrontPage to create and maintain your Web site, your hosting service must install "extensions." (CGI programs that provide the server side implementation of FrontPage) for your account.
  • FRS:
    (Frame Relay Service) FRS. A high speed, wide area, data transfer service that allows for the transfer of variable length frames across a wide geographical area.
  • FTP:
    (File Transfer Protocol) 1. FTP. A client/server protocol for exchanging files with a host computer. 2. The Internet service that transfers files from one computer to another on the Internet. You might use FTP to upload HTML files to your Web host from your own computer. A user ID and password are needed to use FTP, unless Anonymous FTP is allowed.
G
  • Gigabyte:
    (Gb) One billion bytes. To be more accurate, one gigabyte actually contains 1,073,741,824 bytes. Since the prefix "giga" is associated with one billion, the term gibibyte is used to define 1,073,741,824 bytes.
  • Graphic:
    Interchange_Format=(GIF) A type of image file. GIF files are graphics or pictures, often used on Web pages. Because GIF files contain a maximum of 256 colors, this file format is ideal for simple graphics with minimal shading or color variation. Other types of graphics are better suited for the JPEG file format.
  • Graphical_User_Interface:
    (GUI) A type of environment that represents programs, files, and options by means of icons, menus, and dialog boxes on the screen. The user can select and activate options by pointing and clicking with a mouse or, often, with the keyboard.
H
  • Hacker:
    Also known as a computerphile ý a person who is engrossed in computer technology and programming or who likes to examine the code of operating systems and other programs to see how they work. Also, a person who uses computer expertise for illicit ends, such as gaining access to computer systems without permission and tampering with programs and data.
  • Hard_Disk:
    A hard disk is part of a unit, often called a "disk drive," "hard drive," or "hard disk drive," that stores and provides relatively quick access to large amounts of data on an electromagnetically charged surface or set of surfaces. Today's computers typically come with a hard disk that contains several billion bytes (gigabyte) of storage.
  • Hit:
    A single request from a Web browser for a single item from a Web server. When a browser displays a Web page that contains 2 graphics, 3 hits occur at the server: 1 hit for the HTML page itself, plus a hit for each of the two graphics.
  • Home_Directory:
    The root directory for a service where data files is stored. By default, the home directory and all its subdirectories are available to users.
  • Home_Page:
    The first page of a Web site. Some people choose to have only a home page, with no supporting pages. Personal home pages allow an individual to create his/her own presence on the World Wide Web (WWW). It is the page that is retrieved and displayed by default when a user visits the Web server. The default home-page name for a server depends on the server's configuration. On most Web servers, it is index.html or index.htm. Some servers support multiple home pages.
  • Host:
    1. A computer system accessed by a user from a remote location. In the case of two computer systems connected via modem, the "host" is the system containing the data and the "remote" is the computer at which the user is working. 2. A computer that is connected to a TCP/IP network, including the Internet. Each host has a unique IP address. 3. As a verb, "host" means providing the infrastructure for a computer service. A company that hosts a Web server may provide the hardware and software needed to run that server, but does not supply all the content on that server.
  • Hosting:
    Storing customer's Web sites and associated documents. A host computer stores information for individuals or businesses for a fee.
  • Hosting_Platform:
    Shorthand for an operating system such as Microsoft's Windows NT or (once upon a time!) DOS - the basic set of commands that tell your computer how to open applications and store files. In the early days of Internet activity, most servers operated on a Unix platform, an extremely powerful and flexible system. Unix and Microsoft's Windows NT are the popular server platforms today.
  • Hot_Metal:
    A web site construction and publishing tool offered through SoftQuad. HoTMetal uses F.T.P. to transfer files from the local computer to a remote computer.
  • Hotspot:
    A graphically defined area in an image that contains a hyperlink. An image with hotspots is called an image map. In browsers, hotspots are invisible. Users can tell that a hotspot is present by the changing appearance of the pointer.
  • House_of_Internet_Protocol:
    (HoIP) Offers one-stop shopping for a complete solution with world-class customer service. HoIP products include:
  • HTDocs:
    On the Web Hosting Service systems, on UNIX Servers, ýhtdocsý is the required directory to hold the client's web files.
  • HTML:
    (HyperText Markup Language) The coding language used to create documents on the World Wide Web. It is the standard language for describing the contents and structure of pages on the World Wide Web.
  • HTTP:
    (HyperText Transfer Protocol) The Internet protocol that allows World Wide Web browsers to retrieve information from servers. When you enter a URL in your browser to visit a Web page, an HTTP command is sent to the Web server. This command tells the server to fetch and transmit the requested Web page.
  • Hub:
    A central device that connects several computers together.
  • Hyperlink:
    A jump from text or from an image map to a page or other type of file on the World Wide Web. In World Wide Web pages, hyperlinks are the primary way to navigate between pages and among Web sites.
  • Hypertext:
    Originally, any textual information on a computer containing jumps to other information. The hypertext jumps are called hyperlinks. In World Wide Web pages, hypertext is the primary way to navigate between pages and among Web sites. Hypertext on World Wide Web pages has been expanded to include hyperlinks from text and hyperlinks from image maps.
I
  • IDSL:
    Another name for Long Reach DSL. This service extends DSL service up to 30,000 feet from a Central Office location. The service will not be asymmetric as is ADSL, but will be the same speed downstream as well as upstream. This service will be for data only and will not have the ability to deliver voice on the same POTS line as ADSL. For example, LongReach, at 144 kbps, is PBI's solution for customers in some metropolitan areas.
  • IKE:
    Internet Key Exchange protocol. IKE is commonly used to authenticate VPN tunnel end points and to negotiate security parameters for a "management" tunnel. Once the IKE management tunnel is established, you haveýa secure channel over which you can create IPsec tunnels for secure data transfer between trusted networks, protected by the tunnel end points.
  • Image_Map:
    A graphic used for multiple navigation on a Web page. Image maps contain HTML code that turn specific areas of graphics into links.
  • Impressions:
    The actual number of people who've seen a specific Web page. Impressions are much more accurate than hits when discerning how much traffic your Web page actually receives. Impressions are sometimes called "page views."
  • Inside_Wiring:
    If customer orders a Full Installation of the initial basic wire run and jack will be included in the labor rate. If the customer requires "Additional" wiring or jacks, they still have the option of doing the work themselves, contacting a vendor of their choice or using Pacific Bell.
  • Internet:
    Information Server_4.0=(IIS 4.0) Tthe web server application installed on NT servers used for hosting and delivering web sites.
  • Internet_Protocol:
    (IP) Internet software that divides data into packets for transmission over the Internet. Computers must run IP to communicate across the Internet. See also TCP.
  • Intranet:
    A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet, but only for internal use.
  • IP_address:
    Internet Protocol Address. A 32-bit address used to identify your computer on the internet. This address is a string of four numbers separated by periods (such as 111.22.3.444). Each of these numbers is called an octet. Each computer on the internet has a unique number in order for data to be sent to and from the computer. However, by using a router and NAT (network address translation) you can have one IP address and connect many computers to the internet. These many computers would share the one IP address of the router that is connected to the internet, so all computers behind the router would represent themselves as coming from the same IP address.
  • IPsec:
    IP Security. Provides application-transparent encryption services for IP network traffic. Using Internet Protocol Security, you can provide data privacy, integrity, authenticity, and anti-replay protection for network traffic in the following scenarios.
  • IRC:
    (Internet Relay Chat) A method of real time communication, powered by a network of servers.
  • ISP:
    (Internet Service Provider) A company that provides access to the Internet. They provide Internet services such as Email. They issue Static or Dynamically Allocated IP addresses.
  • IUSR:
    Unlike UNIX, NT anonymous visitors to a web site are authenticated in the background as the IUSR_Servername. The IUSR must have at least Browse permissions to your web site so that anyone and everyone can navigate throughout your site without being prompted for a password.
J
  • Java:
    A programming language invented by Sun Microsystems. Java programs (or "applets") can be downloaded from the Internet to your computer. They are often used to enhance Web pages. Common Java applets used on Web pages include animation, calculators, and counters.
  • Java_Servlets:
    Servlets are Java based applications for server side application.
  • JavaScript:
    A scripting language that interacts with HTML source code, allowing for interactive Web sites. JavaScript is used for things such as "rollover buttons" (graphics that change color when you run your mouse over them), rotating banners, MIDI jukeboxes, pop-up windows, etc.
  • JPEG:
    (Joint Photographic Experts Group) A type of image file, similar to GIF. Whereas the GIF file format is limited to 256 colors or less, JPEG files use millions of colors and can often be compressed to a smaller kilobyte size, making Web pages load faster.
K
  • Kbps:
    (Kilobits per second) A measurement of bandwidth where one Kbps equals one thousand bits per second. For example, 384 Kbps equals 384,000 bits per second.
  • Kilobyte_(KB):
    A thousand bytes. To be more accurate, one kilobyte actually contains 1024 bytes. Since the prefix "kilo" is associated with 1000, the term kilobyte is used to define 1024 bytes.
L
  • L2TP:
    Layer 2 Tunnel Protocol. L2TP is an extension to the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), which is an important component for VPNs. It is an emerging Internet standard from Cisco that combines the best features of two existing tunneling protocols: Cisco's Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) and Microsoft's Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). Please see Cisco's web site for in-depth coverage of L2tp.
  • LAN:
    (Local Area Network) Group(s) of computers linked together via routers and bridges. Network of computers within close proximity to each other, usually in same office or group of offices. Allows user capabilities of sharing and utilizing databases, plus software.
  • Line_Conditioning:
    Customers can request to have their line(s) conditioned to remove certain impairments such as the removal of coils, bridge taps, and /or repeaters.
  • LINUX:
    A free version, or flavour, of UNIX.
  • Load_Coil:
    A metallic, doughnut shaped device used on local loops to extend their reach. Load coils severely limit the bandwidth in digital communications.
  • Local_Root_Web:
    In FrontPage terms, this is the web site that resides on the client's local machine.
  • Log_Files:
    Log files store information about hits to the client's web site. All shared hosting customers have access to their log files, in either raw or graphical format. Log files are compiled into graphical format daily (Unix) or weekly (NT) and they contain information relevant to a website.
M
  • Mail_Forwarding:
    An Email feature that forwards Email from one address to another. When you sign up for a hosting plan, you'll receive a domain Email account (you@yourname.com). You might also have an Email address provided by your local ISP. With mail forwarding, all Email addressed to you@yourname.com will be sent to your "real" Email address.
  • Mailing_List:
    A group discussion conducted through Email messages, specific to a topic or common interest. When a message is sent to a mailing list, each list subscriber receives a copy.
  • Mb:
    (Megabyte) A million bytes; a thousand kilobytes. To be more accurate, one megabyte actually contains 1,048,576 bytes. Since the prefix "mega" is associated with one million, the term mebibyte is used to define 1,048,576 bytes.
  • Mbps:
    (Million bits per second) A measurement of digital bandwidth where one Mbps equals one million bits per second.
  • Merchant_Account:
    Merchants, from the smallest on-line storefront to a large "brick and mortar" retailer, who accept and process credit cards need a Merchant Account. A merchant account enables merchants to accept and clear credit card transactions.
  • META_tag:
    Hidden HTML code that contains information about a Web page, such as who created the page, what the page is about, and which keywords best describe the page's content. Some search engines use this information to list and categorize Web pages by topic.
  • Microsoft_Access:
    Microsoft Access is the best selling database in the world since it comes bundled in Microsoft Office. Powerful and fully compatible with ASP scripting, this feature is available on NT virtual servers only.
  • Microsoft_FrontPage_Extensions:
    Programs that provide the server-side implementation of many FrontPage 2000 features. FrontPage software communicates with the extension to direct requests to FrontPage programs that allow features such as uploading and downloading files, setting privileges, and browse-time WebBot components.
  • Mini_SQL:
    (mSQL) A lightweight database engine designed to provide fast access to stored data. See also SQL
  • Mobility:
    Ability to continually move from one location to another.
  • Modem:
    A device that connects your computer to a phone line. It is used to send data over analog telephone lines. It converts computer data, which are digital signals, to analog signals at the sending end and converts analog signals to digital signals at the receiving end so that the receiving computer can read it. Used for Dial-up Internet Access. A modem may be internal or external to a PC.
  • Multihosting:
    The ability of a Web server to support more than one Internet address and more than one home page on a single server. Also called multihoming.
  • Multipurpose:
    Internet Mail_Extensions=MIME. The standard for attaching non-text files (such as graphics, spreadsheets, word processor documents, sound files, etc.) to Email messages.
  • Musical_Instrument:
    Digital_Interface=MIDI. A digital sound file, often used to play music on Web pages.
  • MX_Record:
    Mail Exchange (MX) in the Internet's Domain Name System (D.N.S.) is used to resolve your mail server's host name to it is I.P. address.
  • MySQL:
    MySQL (pronounced "my ess cue el," not "my sequel") is an open source relational database management system (RDBMS) that uses Structured Query Language (SQL ), the most popular language for adding, accessing, and processing data in a database. Because it is open source, anyone can download mySQL and tailor it to their needs in accordance with the general public license. MySQL is noted mainly for its speed, reliability, and flexibility. Most agree, however, that it works best when managing content and not executing transactions.
N
  • Netiquette:
    The informal rules of Internet etiquette.
  • Netizen:
    Derived from the term citizen, referring to a citizen of the Internet. The term implies civic responsibility and participation.
  • Network:
    Two or more computers connected together for the purpose of sharing resources.
  • Network_Location:
    In a URL, the unique name that identifies an Internet server. A network location has two or more parts, separated by periods, as in my.network.location. Also called host name and Internet address.
  • News_Group:
    A place on the Internet where users converse on a particular topic.
  • Newsgroup:
    An Internet forum at which people meet to discuss a variety of topics. Newsgroups are typically accessed through a news reader, a program on your computer that connects you to a news server on the Internet.
  • NIC:
    (Network Interface Card) Printed circuit expansion board. Executes the code needed by the computer to connect with the host or some other device. (Forms the interface between the computer and the DSL line).
  • Non-loaded_Cable:
    Outside cable free of loading coils used to increase signal strength on voice grade lines over great distances.
O
  • Operating_System:
    OS. This is the software that manages a computer system. Windows 95 is an OS.
  • Optical_Carrier_Lines:
    OC3 Lines. Web Hosting companies generally connect to the Internet through T1, T3, and less frequently OC lines. OC3 lines which carry information along the Internet backbone, transfer data at 155 Mbps, more than three times as fast as T1 lines. Many hosting companies use T3, however Pacific Bell uses redundant OC3 lines to ensure that customers' sites remain responsive.
P
  • Packet:
    The unit of data that is routed between an origin and a destination on the Internet or any other packet-switched network.
  • Pair_Gain:
    The multiplexing of multiple phone conversations over a lesser number of physical facilities. Usually refers to electronic systems used in outside plant - from the central office to the subscriber's premises.
  • Parked_Domain_Name:
    To register a domain name, one must define Name Servers where their domain name will reside. By specifying Name Servers does not imply that the client need sign up for a web hosting package.
  • Password:
    A text string that allows a user access to an Internet service, if the service requires it.
  • Path:
    The portion of a URL that identifies the folders containing a file. For example, in the URL http://my.web.site/hello/world /greetings.htm, the path is /hello/world/.
  • PC_Card:
    Term used for laptop NIC cards.
  • Peering:
    The act of one national Internet backbone provider accepting and passing traffic from another national provider.
  • PERL:
    Practical Extraction and Report Language is a dynamic scripting language that allows for the submission and retrieval of data to and from a database that can be used on both a UNIX and NT platform. P.E.R.L. files commonly end with a ý.plý extension.
  • Permanent_Virtual_Circuit:
    PVC. A virtual circuit that provides the equivalent of a dedicated private line service over a packet switching network.
  • Permissions:
    The capability to access a specified resource.
  • PHP:
    In Web programming, PHP is a script language and interpreter, similar to JavaScript and Microsoft's VBScript, that is freely available and used primarily on Linux Web servers. PHP (the initials come from the earliest version of the program, which was called "Personal Home Page Tools") is a cross-platform alternative to Microsoft's Active Server Page (ASP) technology (which runs only on Microsoft's Windows NT/2000 servers). As with ASP, the PHP script is embedded within a Web page along with its HTML. Before the page is sent to a user that has requested it, the Web server calls PHP to interpret and perform the operations called for in the PHP script. An HTML page that includes a PHP script is typically given a file name suffix of ".php" ".php3," or ".phtml". Like ASP, PHP can be thought of as "dynamic HTML pages," since content will vary based on the results of interpreting the script.
  • Ping:
    A program that is used for testing networks. It sends an ICMP Echo packet to a specified address and waits for a response, then reports success or failure.
  • Pixel:
    A unit of measurement for graphics or monitor resolution. A pixel is one dot on a computer screen. Most computer monitors are set to a resolution of 800 x 600, meaning 800 pixels wide by 600 pixels high.
  • Plug-in:
    One of a set of software modules that integrate into Web browsers to offer a range of interactive and multimedia capabilities.
  • Plug-ins:
    Software programs that enhance other programs or applications on your computer. There are plug-ins for Internet browsers, graphics programs, and other applications.
  • Point-to-Point_Connection:
    A direct connection established between two devices.
  • Point_of_Presence:
    Point of Presence is a central location for telephone or Internet connectivity.
  • Point_to_Point_Protocol:
    PPP. The protocol that allows a computer to use a telephone line and a modem to make TCP/IP connections, connecting users to the Internet.
  • POP3:
    (Post Office Protocol, Version 3) The central repository where electronic mail is stored before the recipient downloads it; analogous to a U.S. Post Office box where mail is stored waiting to be picked up. In an Email address, the POP3 host is the part to the right of the @ symbol.
  • Port:
    A number identifying a certain Internet application.
  • Post_Office_Protocol:
    POP. A set of rules by which a client machine can retrieve mail from a mail server.
  • PPTP:
    Point-to-point tunneling protocol. PPTP is a protocol for creating virtual private networks. The protocol is not considered as secure as other VPN protocols, such as IPsec.
  • Pretty:
    Good_Privacy= (PGP) The protocol used to encrypt email.
  • Protocol:
    1. Agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices. 2. A method of accessing a document or service over the Internet, such as File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Also called type.
  • Proxy_Server:
    An Internet server that acts as a firewall, mediating traffic between a protected network and the Internet.
  • Publish:
    In FrontPage lingo, publish is synonymous with transferring files to a remote server. Contrary to F.T.P., FrontPage uses port 80 to transfer files from a local computer to a remote computer.
Q
R
  • RADIUS:
    (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) A customer inputs a user name and password which authorizes access to the ISP's network.
  • RAID:
    RAID (redundant array of independent disks) is a way of storing the same data in different places (thus, redundantly) on multiple hard disk.
  • RAM:
    (Random Access Memory) This is reusable computer memory, available to all programs on a computer. A computer with 32M of RAM has about 32 million bytes of memory that programs can use. RAM is read/write memory, as opposed to ROM which is read-only memory.
  • RealPlayer:
    Client software that plays audio and video media. Providers of news, entertainment, sports, and business content can create audio and video multimedia content, and deliver it online to audiences worldwide. To create your own RealPlayer files and offer them on your Web site, your hosting service must install special "extensions" for your account.
  • Repeaters:
    Telco device used to regenerate and replicate telephone signals over great distances (not allowed on DSL Line).
  • Resolution:
    The way things appear on your computer monitor. Resolution is measured in pixels. The lower the resolution, the larger things appear on your screen. Most computer monitors are set at 800 x 600 resolution, meaning 800 pixels wide by 600 pixels high. Some people's monitors are set at 1024 x 768 or higher. Others are set at 640 x 480. When designing a Web site, keep in mind that your Web pages will look different to viewers depending on their monitor resolutions.
  • RF:
    Radio Frequency. Any frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation. When an RF current is supplied to an antenna, an electromagnetic field is created that is able to propagate through space. Many wireless technologies are based on RF field propagation.
  • RLAN:
    (Remote Local Area Network) Allows a user to access their office LAN from a remote location via, in this case, DSL. A User can use all systems, databases, and software as if they are in their office.
  • Roaming:
    Connecting to your Internet account from somewhere outside your normal service area. Additional charges usually apply for this capability.
  • ROM:
    (Read Only Memory) A computer's unchangeable memory. It's used to store programs that start the computer and run diagnostic functions.
  • Router:
    A device that finds the best path for a data packet to be sent from one network to another. The router controls the direction and translation of data between different devices. Provides firewall security.
  • Router-based_Security:
    The Cayman router comes with NAT (Network Address Translation). NAT allows an entire LAN (Local Area Network) to share one public IP address that is visible to the outside world while internally assigning private IP addresses (cannot be seen by the outside world) to the rest of the devices on the LAN.
S
  • Search_Engine:
    A directory of Internet content. Search engines use spiders to search for Web pages, and then list those pages according to the content they contain. When you use a search engine to find specific information, the search engine provides a detailed list of Web pages that best match your inquiry. Popular search engines include Excite, Snap, Yahoo, and Infoseek.
  • Secure_Socket_Layer:
    SSL. A protocol which is designed to provide secure communications on the Internet. During an SSL connection, each side sends a Security Certificate to the other. Both sides then encrypt what they send, ensuring that only the intended recipient can decode it.
  • Security_Certificate:
    Information used to establish a secure connection by SSL protocol. In order for an SSL connection to be created, both sides must have a valid Security Certificate, issued by the Certificate Authority.
  • Server:
    A computer that offers services on a network. On the World Wide Web, the server is the computer that runs the Web server program that responds to HTTP protocol requests by providing Web pages. Also called host.
  • Server_Side_Includes:
    A convenient and flexible method for embedding CGI capability into your web pages.
  • Set_Allocation:
    A pre-determined number of Email aliases.
  • Shared_key_authentication:
    A type of authentication that assumes each station has received a secret shared key through a secure channel independent from an 802.11 network. Stations authenticate through shared knowledge of the secret key. Use of Shared Key authentication requires implementation of the 802.11 Wireless Equivalent Privacy algorithm.
  • Shared_Web_Hosting:
    A service that provides the customer with the ability to have a "Web-presence" without the cost of maintaining their own Web server and access. For small to medium-sized customers needing Web presence, the best choice is shared server hosting. The site is located on one of the Web host's servers ý the equivalent of leasing office space. A certain portion of the building is yours, with your name on the door, and you can rely on the building manager (the Web host) for security, maintenance and facilities management. This is called "shared" hosting because your home page has its own domain name (www.yourcompanywebsite.com), and appears to exist as a stand-alone server.
  • Shock_Wave:
    A multimedia application by MacroMedia for dynamic online visual presentations.
  • Site_Builder:
    A user-friendly, easy to use Web site creation tool, which includes fifty pre-designed templates, that enables customers to create their own Web sites.
  • Site_Traffic:
    Refers to the number of pages or hits a customer's Web site will experience in any given month. A site traffic of 3 Gb is equivalent to 100,00 pages served pages assuming that an average page size is 30 kb: 4 Gb is equivalent to 133,333 pages served, etc.
  • SMTP:
    (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) Defines a way two mail servers communicate in order to transmit and receive Email messages.
  • Spam_(or_Spamming):
    Junk Email or junk newsgroup posts. Spam is usually some sort of advertising, inappropriately sent to a mailing list or newsgroup. Spam not only wastes the recipient's time, but also misuses network bandwidth.
  • Spectrum_Management:
    Process performed by Engineering to insure DSL is placed correctly in our network with dissimilar types of services (i.e., T1, HDSL, and ISDN). These other services and DSL act as "disturbers" towards each other, causing interference and possible loss in transmission of their data.
  • Spider:
    An Internet program (used by a search engine) that explores the Web at large. Spiders collect and index Web page addresses based on content found at those pages.
  • Splitter:
    A device put on a customer's premise to "split" a customer's signal into 2 paths: data and voice.
  • SQL:
    (Structured Query Language) A specialized programming language used to send queries to databases. Many Web-based programs use SQL to store and retrieve information about users and products from databases.
  • SSID:
    Service Set Identifier. An identifier attached to packets sent over the wireless LAN that functions as a ýpasswordý for joining a particular wireless network. All computers and access points within the same wireless network must use the same SSID or their packets will be ignored.
  • Static_IP:
    Referred to as fixed IP address. It is an address that does not change. It is permanently assigned to a specific computer or customer.
  • Streaming_Media:
    Two types of audio services are supported: Real Audio and Windows Media. Both these servers are remote servers to the local web servers. Basic Real Audio and Video streaming use a batch of shared streams that are allocated on a first-come, first-served basis, and is available at no additional cost on some or all web packages. Dedicated streams can be purchased on a per-stream basis.
  • Symmetric:
    The same or even speeds in both directions. Interference is greater with symmetric signals.
  • Synchronous:
    Occurring at regular intervals. The opposite of asynchronous. Most communication between computers and devices is asynchronous - - it can occur any time and at irregular intervals. Communication within a computer, however, is usually synchronous and is governed by the microprocessor clock.
T
  • TCP/IP:
    (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) Internet networking software that controls the transmission of packets of data over the Internet. Among its tasks, TCP checks for lost packets, puts the data from multiple packets into the correct order, and requests those missing or damaged packets be resent. Computers must run TCP to communicate with World Wide Web servers.
  • Telnet:
    Telnet is the way you can access someone elses computer, assuming they have given you permission. (Such a computer is frequently called a host computer). More technically, Telnet is a user command and an underlying TCP/IP protocol for accessing remote computers. Secure Telnet is often referred to SSH.
  • Triple-Des:
    For some time it has been common practice to protect information with triple-DES instead of DES. This means that the input data is, in effect, encrypted three times.
U
  • UNIX:
    An operating system typically used on proprietary workstations and computers. Some World Wide Web servers run on UNIX systems. PBIS offers Web Hosting on a UNIX platform, "Sun Solaris Enterprise Server." Other variations of UNIX include: SGI, LINUX, Santa Cruz Operation UNIX, IBM AIX, iPlanet Server.
  • Unspecified_Bit_Rate:
    UBR. Service utilized by a Private Corporation, as an alternative to a Virtual Private Network taking advantage of DSL services.
  • URL:
    (Uniform Resource Locator) The global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web. It is the name for the Internet address of a particular individual, device, or Web site. For example, the URL for IBM is: http://www.ibm.com.
  • USB:
    (Universal Serial Bus) A data communications port installed on the newest PCs and can support speeds of up to 12 Mbps. USB ports are represented by a three-forked trident symbol.
  • UWCC:
    Universal Wireless Communications Consortium. An industry group supporting IS-136 time division multiple access and IS-41 wireless intelligent network technology.
V
  • Virtual_Hosting:
    Hosting service designed to provide you with the tools you need to effectively manage your presence on the Internet.
  • VPN:
    Virtual private network. VPN stands for virtual private network. It is a means for someone who is not physically in your office to use the Internet to connect to network resources such as shared drives, email or a database. Sales people who must travel around the world can use a VPN to connect to the office network and transmit data just as if they were sitting in the office by using certain security measures. Security measures involve encrypting data before sending it across the Internet and decrypting the data at the other end. An additional level of security can be added by encrypting the originating and receiving network address. A VPN uses very strong encryption to secure the data you are transmitting from "prying" eyes. Even if someone captures your data on the Internet, they will never be able to read it. The person connecting to your network has to identify themselves and log into the network just as if they were at their desk. By using a VPN you can close off your network to the outside world and only allow users with the proper credentials to connect. Using a VPN is the best way to keep workers who travel in touch with their information and email stored on your local network.
W
  • Web_Hosting:
    A service that provides a physical location for a Web site. Customers' sites reside on computers stored in secure and climate-controlled environments and permanently linked to the Internet through high-speed data lines. These computers store the Web pages that make up Web sites. As soon as your pages are installed on the server they become available to visitors and customers on the Internet - providing they have the correct address. (www.yourcompanywebsite.com)
  • Web_Site:
    A collection of Web files that includes a beginning file called a home page. A company or an individual tells you how to get to their Web site by giving you the address of their home page. From the home page, you can get to all the other pages on their site.
  • WEP:
    Wired Equivalent Privacy. An optional IEEE 802.11 function that offers frame transmission privacy similar to a wired network. The Wired Equivalent Privacy generates secret shared encryption keys that both source and destination stations can use to alter frame bits to avoid disclosure to eavesdroppers.
  • Wi-Fi:
    Wireless Fidelity. A termýreferringýto any type of 802.11 network, whether 802.11g, 802.11b, 802.11a, dual-band, etc.
  • WPA:
    Wi-Fi Protected Access. An industry-supported, pre-standard version of 802.11i utilizing the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), which fixes the problems of WEP, including using dynamic keys.
X
Y
Z
  • Zone_Record:
    A zone record defines the domain name to I.P. address resolution for services such as WWW, FTP, and MX.